Psychology and business in today’s realities are closely linked. The fields of implementation of the principles of psychology affect a large part of business processes. Especially as it relates to the field of interaction between people. By applying psychological principles to business, companies can improve their performance, increase productivity, and create a more supportive work environment. Psychology can help companies better understand the motivations and interactions of their employees and customers, which will definitely affect the efficiency of the company.
This article will focus readers‘ attention on the concept of cognitive personality styles and how this knowledge can be used in business. To date, there is a whole galaxy of scientists whose research interests are entirely or partially concerned with the study of the cognitive styles of personality. A certain classification has been formed, but disputes and discussions regarding the meaning of the term are still going on.
A person’s cognitive styles are individual differences in the ways of perceiving, processing and organizing information. They reflect the preferred ways of solving tasks and life problems. They are thought to be relatively stable and consistent across situations and unchanged throughout the individual. Cognitive styles can be thought of as cognitive tendencies or biases that shape the way a person thinks and learns. Different cognitive styles may be more or less adaptive in different contexts, depending on the individual’s tasks and preferences.
Knowledge of cognitive personality styles has a wide range of applications in various fields, such as education, business, career counseling or success, clinical psychology, and other areas. But our range of attention will focus on the use of techniques, tools, and characteristics developed from cognitive personality styles in business.
For example, the Myers-Briggs typology (MBTI) is a widely used personality assessment tool developed by Isabel Briggs Myers and her mother Catherine Cook Briggs based on Carl Jung’s theories. This theory is based on the fact that a person’s perception is based on four psychological pillars: thinking, feeling, intuition, and sensation.
The Myers-Briggs typology contains four scales, which are used to determine personality type.
The first EI scale: energy type (extrovert – introvert). It indicates the source of a person’s energy: how sociable and active he or she is, or whether he or she prefers solitude and silence. Extroverts tend to be outgoing and energized by social interaction, while introverts tend to be more reserved and energized by quiet reflection and solitude.
The second SI scale: Type of Thinking (Sensorics – Intuit). It shows how a person gathers and processes information: through concrete facts and details, or through interpretation and abstract concepts. Sensorics tend to focus on concrete, tangible information, while intuitive are more abstract and focus on possibilities and connections.
The third LE scale: behavioral style (logical-ethical). It reflects how one makes decisions: based on logical analysis and objective facts or based on emotions and social norms. Thinkers tend to make decisions based on logic and objective analysis, while feelers tend to make decisions based on subjective values and emotions.
The fourth RI scale: Lifestyle (rational – irrational). It indicates how a person manages his life: plans and controls all the details, or leaves everything for later and adapts to circumstances.
The Myers-Briggs personality typology results are assessed on the basis of answers to the MBTI test questions. The questions are presented in the form of situations, actions, and questions to which a person must choose one of two possible answers. Each answer corresponds to an option on each of the four scales.
After taking the test, the answers are scored and translated into a letter code that displays the personality type of the person on the MBTI scales. The code consists of four letters, each corresponding to one of the scales: extraversion (E), sensing (S), thinking (T), judgment (J) introversion (I), intuition (N), feeling (F), perception (P)
For example, the code „ISTJ“ means that the person is an introvert, prone to feeling, making decisions based on thinking and preferring planning and control.
The results according to this test can be applied both for understanding oneself, other people, and in the business plane.
Among the experts engaged in the study of the cognitive styles of personality one can single out Halyna Shabshai. She is a psychologist, writer from Ukraine and Israel, and an expert in integrative psychotherapy. Halyna focuses on developing human potential, in particular, she has published a number of scientific articles on the subject of cognitive personality styles:
- „Basic Approaches to Understanding a Person’s Cognitive Styles: A Metatheoretical Study“;
- „Cognitive Styles in Business and Business Activities: An Integrative Approach“;
- „Conceptual Approaches to a Person’s Proactive Potential: An Integrative Approach“.
In the article „Cognitive Styles in Entrepreneurial and Business Activities: An Integrative Approach,“ Halyna Shabshai proved that business leaders must have certain cognitive styles in order to succeed in their endeavors. The article provides a range of cognitive styles, the analysis of which showed how the presence or absence of a particular style affects success in business activities.
It is critical for entrepreneurs and CEOs to be able to motivate and effectively lead their teams, that is, to exhibit leadership qualities. An executive who is a leader can attract and retain talented employees, bring innovation to the business, and create lasting relationships with customers and partners. The ability to exhibit leadership qualities is essential to the success of an executive and his or her company in the dynamic and compete business world. According to Halyna Shabshai’s research, cognitive styles such as emotional intelligence, social awareness and empathy contribute to the development of a person’s leadership abilities.
Studies of personal cognitive styles in business are important and widely used. After all, any business is people – employees, partners, clients should be able to interact with no conflicts, misunderstanding, disputes. And it is possible only when there is a clear understanding of what person is in front of you.
If we consider the category of employees, the knowledge of the cognitive styles of personality, can greatly improve their performance and job satisfaction, which ultimately will have a positive impact on the bottom line of the enterprise. For example, employees with a preferred cognitive style of analytical thinking may be more effective at accomplishing complex tasks that require precision and consistency. On the other hand, employees with a predominantly creative cognitive style may be more successful at finding new ideas and solutions.
Managers can apply knowledge of personality cognitive styles to optimize work processes and create a supportive work environment. For example, they can assign tasks to employees based on their cognitive styles, which can help them work more efficiently and achieve better results. Managers can also use different communication techniques to take into account each employee’s cognitive traits and create more effective interactions.
Understanding customers cognitive personality styles can help to create more effective marketing and communication strategies with customers. This allows them to better meet their needs and expectations, which in turn can improve customer relationships and increase sales of products and services. This approach can also be extrapolated to the category of partners, allowing for effective interaction, avoiding unwanted conflicts, and conversely, strengthening partnerships and collaboration.
The application of psychology in business is an important factor for success in today’s world. Without the use of psychological tools and approaches, doing business can be extremely difficult and unpredictable, and the achievement of goals is stretched for years.